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Learning the Basics of Plasma Cutting
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Wednesday, May 16, 2018

We already know the three common states of matter which are solid, liquid and gas. However, there can also be a fourth state, when talking about energy along with objects and matter. This fourth state of matter is known as plasma and can be found when anything changes from its original state to another state under the influence of any energy, for instance heat.

A common example to understand how matters transform into different states is the change in water. Water is known to change from its iced form which is a solid state of matter to its liquid form whenever a certain quantity of heat is introduced. If this heat intensity is increased, it can further reshape the liquid form into its gaseous state that as steam. But even after achieving its third and final state, the heat keeps increasing; the gases found in the steam will gradually become electorally conductive and ionized thus producing plasma.

Plasma Cutting Components

To better understand the standard plasma cutting process, it is important to have an idea of its main components.

1. Power Supply

The power supply required for plasma cutting converts single or triple phased AC voltage lines into DC voltage within the range of 200 to 400 DC. The DC voltage is in charge of sustaining the plasma arc right through the cutting process. It is also responsible for regulating the current output needed as per the category and thickness of the materials being processed.

2. Plasma Torch

The plasma torch plays the most important role in the plasma cutting process, as the primary function of the torch is to supply suitable cooling and configuration for the unpreserved materials. The most important of these objects are electrodes, nozzles and swirl rings. There is also an extra protecting cap that can be used for further improving the quality and precision of the cut by making sure that all the parts are joined together without any unwanted gaps.

Plasma Cutting

The newly produced plasma can be cut through by a plasma cutter which will exercise the electrically charged gas for transferring energy from the power source to any attached conductive object. This plasma cutting process is preferred over oxyfuel based cutting as it is a cleaner and faster way of cutting, via plasma.

Formation of the plasma arc initiates when any gas, like nitrogen, oxygen, argon or even shopped air is driven though a little nozzle cavity contained within the torch. Later an electrical arc is produced from the external power source which is subsequently introduced into the gas flow under high pressure conditions. This plasma arc created under the high energy force is known as plasma jet.

A plasma jet quickly reaches even the highest temperatures and can easily hit as high as 40,000 degrees Fahrenheit. The capability of a plasma jet to reach such temperature levels allows it pierce through any wooden material with extreme precision while gusting away all the liquefied materials.


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